Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri

CONGRESS ABSTRACT

CONGRESS ABSTRACT

STERNAL WOUND INFECTION AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY: LOOKING FOR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PERIOPERATIVE VARIABLES AND PATHOGEN AGENTS

Gatti Giuseppe Trieste(Trieste) РASUGI | Radesich Cinzia Trieste(Trieste) РUniversità di Trieste | Savonitto Giulio Trieste(Trieste) РUniversità di Trieste

Background: Sternal wound infection (SWI) can be a major complication of cardiac surgery. Both the risk factors and the pathogens agents are well known today. Yet, possible interactions between perioperative variables and pathogens have not been explored.

Methods: Between Jan 1st, 2006 and Nov 30, 2023 (~18 years), perioperative data of all patients undergoing cardiac operations through median sternotomy at the Cardio-Thoraco-Vascular Department of the University Hospital of Trieste, Italy, were recorded prospectically in a computed database. Every patient developing a sternal complication was followed in a dedicated outpatient clinic and, in the presence of infection, the causative pathogen was always searched for by cultural examination of tissue speciments. Different strategies of unsupervised clustering were applied to find groups of patients with similar clinical, surgical and microbiological profiles.

Results: Of 9,680 consecutive cardiac surgery patients, 516 (5.3%) experienced a SWI that involved superficial soft tissue in 25.6% of cases, deep soft tissue in 51%, sternal bone in 16.7%, or mediastinum in 6.8% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were pathogens in 100 (19.4%), 158 (30.6%), 89 (17.2%) and 36 (7%) patients, respectively; other pathogens, polymicrobial and negative cultures were found in 27 (5.2%), 26 (5%) and 80 (15.5%) patients, respectively. Following statistical analyses, significant associations were found between the Pseudomonas aeruginosa etiology of SWI and some variables such as female gender (0.0001) and preoperative renal failure (p=0.008); significant associations between the Pseudomonas aeruginosa etiology were found also with more serious forms of sepsis (p=0.025), as well as with early postoperative death (p=0.02) and complications such as acute kidney injury (p=0.006), multiple transfusion (p=0.003), and prolonged mechanical ventilation (p=0.005).

Conclusion: For women having renal impairment and undergoing cardiac surgery through median sternotomy, in the case of SWI, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa etiology may be more frequent and a really life-threating complication.