Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri




Mandi Olti Firenze(Fi) – AOU Careggi | Silverii Maria Vittoria firenze(fi) – AOU Careggi | Fattiroli Francesco Firenze(Fi) – AOU Careggi

BACKGROUND Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal drug commonly used in a broad spectrum of infections, including leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis, transmitted through insect bites, has cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral (particularly liver and spleen) involvement. The main adverse effects of AmB are cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, often reversible, but with yet unclear pathophysiology. Reversible dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare disease with very few cases described in the literature (less than 10)

THE CASE A 41-year-old man with a silent cardiological history (only cocaine and alcohol abuse in past) is admitted for visceral leishmaniasis. Cardiological evaluation: LBBB in ECG (none previous available); no abnormality detected on ECOCG (EF 55%). Ten days after the AmB cycle, onset of worsening dyspnoea needing hospital treatment after a further two weeks for heart failure (HF). At ECOCG severe left ventricular dysfunction (EF 30%), no rise of cardiac enzymes was detected. Coronary angiography showed 50-75% stenosis on RCA and LAD, treated by angioplasty and stenting. Cardiac MRI showed: dilated left ventricle with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis (FE 16% left and 22% right), areas of LGE of non-ischemic appearance. HFrEF GDMTs were prescribed, with progressive clinical improvement over the next four weeks; at cardiac MRI performed one month later, partially recovery of biventricular function (FE sn 41% right 48%) was found. The ECG showed regression of LBBB.

No myocardial biopsy was performed, so it is not possible to get to an unequivocal cardiac dysfunction’s cause. However, the time relationship between the use of AmB and the clinical findings evolution, consistently with the few literature available, suggests a probable diagnosis of AmB toxic cardiomyopathy. An ischaemic cause of the dysfunction is unlikely by the MRI feature and by coronary angiography findings.

Literature data suggest that the presence of predisposing factors for cardiac dysfunction, rather than the duration of treatment or preparation used, is the most relevant factor in the development of AmB-related cardiomyopathy. It’s important to perform cardiac monitoring in all patients receiving AmB therapy. In all reported cases, cardiac function recovered substantially after cessation of AmB treatment.