Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri




Pazzanese Vittorio Milano(Milano) – IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele-Milano | Barone Giuseppe Milano(Milano) – IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele-Milano | Galdieri Carmine Milano(Milano) – IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele-Milano

Background: hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a hematological disorders characterized by a chronic, unexplained hypereosinophilia (HE) with tissue damage.Cardiac involvement occurs in ∼20% of patients with HES and it carries a poor prognosis.Early detection and treatment of myocardial involvement improves prognosis.Immunosuppressive therapy represents the core treatment in the majority of patients with Eosinophilic Myocarditis.

Case summary: 50-year-old man with history of intrinsic asthma and HE was admitted for cardiogenic shock B stage according SCAI classification (heart rate was 130 bpm, systolic blood pressure was 90 mmHg and lactate <2).EKG showed sinus tachycardia and diffuse ST segment depression. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and mild pericardial effusion. Blood test showed leukocytosis (33x10^9/L) with HE (47%), mild hepato-renal damage, high TroponinT 3874 pg/mL and NT-proBNP 11060 ng/L. Coronary angiography was unremarkable.Pulmonary artery catheter was placed: IC 1,78 l/min/mq, CPO 0,63, WP 21, SVO2 60%, SVR 17 WU, RAP/WP 0.74. We reclassified patients as SCAI C with "mixed shock" due to inflammatory component and latent right ventricular dysfunction. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was placed and we performed endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). High dose of intra venous corticosteroids was started obtaining progressive improvement of hemodynamic parameters and reduction of inflammation parameters (Fig.1).EMB confirmed the diagnosis of myocarditis with initial transition into ''Loffler's cardiomyopathy''.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis did not detect cardiotropic viruses. After improvement of clinical status we performed cardiac MRI that revealed diffuse biventricular myocardial edema and the presence of subepicardial and mid-wall enhancement with non ischemic pattern,endocardial fibrosis and multiple left ventricular thrombi (Fig. 2).β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were started and the patient was discharged at home with a complete myocardial recovery and immunosuppressive therapy based on corticosteroids and azathioprine. Discussion: this case demonstrates the usefulness of myocardial biopsy in fulminant myocarditis. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement. Early invasive monitoring allowed more precise hemodynamic characterization and mechanical circulatory support with IABP proved feasible and might have helped by unloading the left ventricle.