Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the common valvular heart disease, with a prevalence about 1-3% in the population. MVP is characterized on echocardiography by an abnormal systolic displacement of mitral valve leaflets into left atrium (LA) ≥ 2 mm above the mitral annulus.
We described a clinical case of a 15 years-old boy with a first clinical presentation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest related to ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a successful resuscitation after 2 DC shocks. Retrospectively, an episode of loss of awareness reported as post-minational. No familiar history of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or MVP was noticed. In the emergency room, the patient was hemodynamically unstable and was sedated and intubated. The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) showed sinus rhythm, QRS with fragmentation, and frequent monomorphic isolated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with RBBB/LAFB configuration.Frequent monomorphic PVCs with bigeminy was observed during continuous ECG monitoring, so the patient was treated with magnesium sulphate and metoprolol. The patient was subsequently weaned from ventilation support, presenting good gas exchange and without neurological sequalae. The 24h Holter monitoring showed an average of 53 bpm, extremely rare supraventricular extrasystoles, high incidence of monomorphic PVCs (23% of the total beats) with 4 couplets. Transthoracic echocardiography documented normal size and thickness with systolic function (GLS -21%, mild asynchrony of posterior basal segments), bi-leaflet prolapse associated to mild-moderate mitral regurgitation, and mitral annular disjunction (MAD) of 6.2 mm. The late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance showed bi-leaflet prolapse with mild insufficiency and maximum MAD 9 mm, mild LA dilatation, and slightly dilated both ventricles, without regional wall motion abnormalities; no scar or fibrosis at the late gadolinium enhancement was observed. According to guidelines, the patient received a subcutaneous implantable cardiac defibrillator for the secondary prevention of SCD and maintained under betablockers in order to control the arrhythmic burden. The genetic sampling did not show any pathogenetic mutation potentially related to cardiomyopathies or channelopathies.
This case show an arrhythmic MVP complex with probably posterior papillary muscle source. The early PVCs with R/T constituted a possible trigger of VF. The betablocker therapy exhibited a full suppression of extrasystolic burden.