Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri

CONGRESS ABSTRACT

CONGRESS ABSTRACT

Scary ECG in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Iezzi Lorena Chieti(CH) – Scuola di Specializzazione in malattie dell’apparato cardiovascolare Universit√† “G. d’Annunzio” | Cicchitti Vincenzo Chieti(CH) – Cardiologia-UTIC p.o. “S.S. Annunziata” | Gallina Sabina Chieti(CH) – Scuola di Specializzazione in malattie dell’apparato cardiovascolare Universit√† “G. d’Annunzio”

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by a transient ventricular wall motion abnormality and shares common features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a wide spectrum of triggers, such as both emotional or physical, activating common toxic catecholamines-mediated pathways. TTC might be associated with severe clinical complications. We report a case of a 74-year female patient with circulatory shock with mixed phenotype, distributive due to sepsis and cardiogenic due to TTC. The patient presented to the emergency department with severe hypotension, pathological qSOFA score and clinical and laboratory findings consistent with severe sepsis. ECG showed diffuse lambda ST-segment elevation, also called “shark fin”(fig.1). According to hemodynamically unstable scenario and ECG pattern, emergency coronary angiography was performed, showing absence of coronary artery disease(fig. 2). Echocardiography revealed severe LV systolic disfunction (EF 20-25%) with apical ballooning and severe systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the anterior mitral leaflet eliciting dynamic LVOTO with peak gradient greater than 90 mmHg; fig. 3) and severe MR. Patient was treated with cautious fluid administration, hemotrasfusion and empiric large spectrum antibiotic therapy. According to TTC working diagnosis, even if septic state was thought to contribute to cardiogenic shock, norepinephrine was not administered due to concerns for LVOTO and SAM. After overcoming of dramatic first phase and after hemodynamic steadiness was achieved, beta blockade and ACEi were progressively administered. Seriate transthoracic echocardiogram revealed progressive improvement of LV systolic function, regression of apical ballooning, SAM and LVOTO. ECG monitoring showed regression of ischemic ST elevation. ST elevation has been described in about 56% of TTC cases, however with amplitude tipically lower than in STEMI. Lambda-wave ST elevation has been rarely reported. Vasospasm, local intermittent microvascular constriction, catecholamine-induced metabolic toxicity, transmural systolic wall tension and its the mechano-electric feedback can explain scaring ECG-pattern. Despite its rare prevalence in TTC “shark fin” pattern appears to relate to adverse outcome and it should be used as an early marker of potential further clinical deterioration, suggesting more intensive monitoring to avoid delays in possible therapy escalation.