Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri



Single center experience in surgical treatment for active endocarditis before and after COVID-19 Pandemic

Mikus Elisa Cotignola(Ravenna) – Maria Cecilia Hospital GVM | Fiorentino Mariafrancesca Cotignola(Ravenna) – Maria Cecilia Hospital GVM | Fiaschini Costanza Bologna(Bologna) – IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Sant’orsola


Despite advanced diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. The impact of COVID-19 on diagnosis and outcome of surgical treatment of IE is uncertain. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of surgically treated IE before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


This study retrospectively analyzed data of 536 patients who underwent valve surgical procedures for IE between January 2010 and December 2022 in a single cardiac surgery center. Patients were divided in two groups depending on the date of operation: before (n=393) and after (n=142) COVID-19 onset. In order to balance the groups, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) calculated from the propensity score (PS) was applied.


We noticed a significant increase (p=0.006) in the prevalence of infective endocarditis admitted for surgery throughout the years, comparing it to overall hospitalizations in our cardiac surgery department (Figure 1). Patients from the post COVID cohort (after march 2020) had more comorbidities such as diabetes (29.6% vs 16.3% p=0.001), hypertension (71.1% vs 59.5% p=0.015), and preoperative kidney injury requiring dialysis (9.2% vs 2.5% p=0.002), but median additive and logistic Euroscore were not statistically different. In the post COVID group, we observed a greater prevalence of S. Aureus related endocarditis (24.5% vs 15.4% p=0.026), and a consequent reduction in S. non Aureus related endocarditis (12.2% vs 20.1% p=0.048) (Figure 2), a decrease of aortic valve replacement (43.0% vs 53.9%), while the number of mitral valve replacement ad repair resulted to be higher (21.1% vs 15.0% and 6.3% vs 4.3% respectively) (Figure 3). No differences in the two groups concerning early death but also death or relapse at one year after surgery. Data obtained by the multivariable analysis identify the preoperative renal dysfunction requiring dialysis as the only common risk factor for early mortality stratifying by time periods in analysis.


The incidence of surgical treated IE significant increase after COVID-19 pandemic with a higher incidence of mitral involvement instead of aortic valve. Despite the pandemic and the delay in surgical timing, results in terms of mortality and outcomes have improved and were largely unaffected by the COVID-19 pandemic.