Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri



Heart Failure and its phenotypes in the real world: data from The Cardiovascular Observatory of Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Russo Giulia Trieste(TS) – SC Patologie Cardiovascolari | Cittar Marco Trieste(TS) – SC Patologie Cardiovascolari | Cappelletto Chiara Trieste(TS) – SC Patologie Cardiovascolari

Introduction: Heart Failure (HF) is a disease with high mortality and morbidity burden. Guidelines classify HF according the ejection fraction (EF) in three phenotypes. HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most prevalent in the real world for increasing in life expectancy and the presence of many comorbidities.

Aim: knowing and analysing the epidemiology and clinic features of HF to create the most appropriate diagnostic-therapeutic pathways. The Cardiovascular Observatory of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (CVOFVG), which allows this analysis, is a powerful tool for clinical governance.

Results: in Friuli Venezia Giulia, at 1st January 2023, 21.212 alive patients had a HF diagnosis (1.78% prevalence). Considering the different phenotypes, in the real world, from 2018 to 2023, the most prevalent patients had EF > 40% (in 2022: HFpEF 55%, HFmrEF 9% and HFimpEF 20%). In our registry patients with HFpEF are older (mean age 80±10 yrs vs 79±11 yrs in HFmrEF vs 76±11 yrs in HFrEF), mostly women (52% vs 38% in HFmrEF, vs 27% in HFrEF), with many cardiovascular (CV) diseases, such as atrial fibrillation (57% vs 53% in HFmrEF vs 49% in HFrEF) and non CV as obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As expected, ischemic heart disease is prevalent in HFrEF in 59% vs 38% in HFpEF.

In the CVOFVG, in 2022 the hospitalization rate was 1260/100000 inhabitants (262 for HF hospitalization, 188 for CV causes, 808 for non CV disease). HFrEF has a higher incidence of HF hospitalization (54.3 on 166.2/100.000 totals). Furthermore, HFpEF because of its high prevalence, has a higher rate of CV and HF hospitalization than HFrEF (77.8 vs 54.3/100.000 inhabitants for year, 929 hospitalization vs 646). The mortality in one year is higher in HFrEF and HFmrEF vs HFpEF and above all HFimpEF.

Drug prescription was different from clinical trial: in 2022, 72.2% of HFrEF patients received renin angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi), 89.2% beta blockers (BB), 62.6% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) and 44% SGLT2-inibitors (SGLT2-I). Same prescription for RASi, BB, MRA was in HFimpEF and HFmrEF, less for HFpEF.

Conclusions: the patients’ complexity, their increasing number, the new drugs for HFpEF lead to create multidisciplinary pathways, above all for HFpEF patients who are frequently visited by General Physicians, Internal Physicians and Geriatrics, to select the most complex case where a therapeutic intervention can be efficacy.