Background. The two-dimensional speckle tracking analysis (2D-ST) is a new useful tool in order to evaluate both atrial and ventricular function.
Aim of the study. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2D-ST measures reflecting atrial and ventricular function in predicting the outcome among outpatients affected by chronic heart failure (CHF).
Methods. We enrolled 212 outpatients (age 64±13 years, 77% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF, 38±11%, NYHA class 2.4±0.5) affected by CHF in conventional therapy (sacubitril/valsartan or ACE-inhibitors or Angiotensin II receptor blockers in 85%, beta-blockers in 94%, mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists in 74%, diuretics in 72%, SGLT2 inhibitors in 20%). All patients underwent a medical visit, an ECG and an echocardiographic examination. The following 2D-ST parameters reflecting atrial and ventricular function were analyzed: global longitudinal left ventricular strain (LV-GLS, mean -11.4±3.9%), global longitudinal right ventricular strain (RV-GLS, mean -15.2±5.2%), free wall right ventricular longitudinal strain (RV-fwLS, mean -20.2±5.8%); left atrial reservoir (LAr, mean 19±10.8%), conduit (LAcd, mean -10.-8±6.8) and contraction (LAct, mean -8.1±8.2). Moreover, the early diastolic peak at pulsed Doppler (E) and at the level of septal (e’s) and lateral (e’l) mitral annulus by Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) were also evaluated. Then the ratio between E and e’s (E/es, mean 13.9±6.4) and between E and the mean of e’s and e’l (E/em, mean 11.1±5.4) were also calculated. Finally, the ratio between LAr and E/es (LAr/Ees, mean 1.98±1.65) and E/em (LAr/Eem, mean 2.51±1.95) were computed. During follow-up the progression of heart failure, defined as heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death, were evaluated.
Results. During a mean follow-up of 13±6, 32 patients experienced death (13) and/or hospitalization (25) for heart failure worsening. The table shows the relationship among echocardiographic variables and outcome At Cox univariate regression analysis and the relative C-index. LAR/Ees showed the greater accuracy (C-index) in predicting heart failure progression.
Conclusions. 2D-ST is an echocardiographic approach able to more accurately assess both left ventricular and atrial function. In our series, among the 2D-ST parameters, the ratio between LAr and E/es is characterized by the greater accuracy in predicting heart failure progression.