Background: Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) is a challenging clinical scenario and represents an increasingly studied cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An interventional strategy in these cases remains controversial since it may require an extensive permanent metallic stenting of vessel to seal the dissection with a non negligible rate of complications. Moreover, SCAD patients are usually young women with non-calcified disease where Bioresorbable Scaffolds (BrS) may be an intriguing option.
Methods: DISCO IT/SPA is a International observational registry which retrospectively enrolled patients admitted with a diagnosis of SCAD across 26 Italian and Spanish centers. Baseline, procedural characteristics, in–hospital management and outcomes of 369 SCAD patients were collected, of these 12 patients were treated with PCI with BrS MAGMARIS at the coordinator center of Rivoli and Orbassano. Major cardiovascular events (MACEs) were defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal Myocardial infarction (MIs) and any PCI performed.
Results: In our cohort of SCAD patients treated with BrS there was a slight prevalence of women (n=7, 58,3%) with an average age of 50,9±7,4 years. NSTE-ACS was the most common clinical presentation (83,3%), followed by STEMI (16,7%). In 7 patients the first treatment choice for SCAD was PCI with BrS deployment, in 5 patients BrS were deployed during hospitalization for unplanned PCIs (four of them) and after one month for a MI due to SCAD recurrence in the last patient. Multivessel disease was present only in one case and LAD-DG was the main vessel affected (n=10, 83,3%). SCAD type 2A was the most frequent (41,7%). Intravascular imaging was performed in 10 cases (83,3%) and procedural success was achieved in all cases. Angiographic follow-up was obtained in 9 patients (75%), through coronary angiogram (n=8) or CT scan (n=1), at a mean length of 5,2±5,6 months. In-hospital MACE were 5 (23,8%) but none of them occurred after BrS deployment. The only MACE reported after BrS deployment was an unplanned PCI for SCAD progression.
Conclusions: In SCAD bioresorbable scaffolds represent an excellent option to preserve the natural physiology of the coronary vessels. Notably, in our cohort we reported a very high procedural success rate in PCI assisted in large part by intracoronary imaging. Further studies with larger numerosity are needed to demonstrate the advantages of this type of scaffold in these patients.